15 June 2021, 12:33
At the government session chaired by the Prime Minister Askar Mamin, Minister of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources Magzum Mirzagaliyev reported on the measures taken to address environmental problems in the regions.
“Today, the main environmental problems of the regions are air and surface water pollution, an imperfect waste management system. According to the environmental monitoring of atmospheric air, at the end of 2020, out of 45 industrial cities and megalopolises, 10 cities belong to a high level of air pollution. These are the cities of Nur-Sultan, Almaty, Karaganda, Temirtau, Atyrau, Aktobe, Balkhash, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Zhezkazgan and Shymkent. The total volume of pollutant emissions amounted to 2.5 million tons,” Mirzagaliyev noted.
Outdated sewage treatment plants are one of the main causes of surface water pollution. In total, in the country in 2020, the total volume of discharges amounted to 1.1 million tons.
There is an acute problem in the management of production and consumption wastes, namely, the inconsistency with the sanitary and environmental requirements of solid waste landfills, a low level of solid waste processing and spontaneous dumps.
The Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources, as part of the implementation of the concept of a hearing state, considered environmental problems and ways to solve them with the public, especially with eco-activists in all regions. Based on the results of the discussion, together with the public, akimats and nature users, 17 Road Maps were developed. There are 485 events in total. In 2021, 95 events are planned. In the first quarter of this year. 70 events are planned, 42 of them have been completed and 28 have not been implemented.
“The implementation of the Roadmaps by 2025 will reduce the air pollution index in ten cities from high to medium, which will help improve the state of atmospheric air. In addition, 7 WWTPs and 24 new landfills will be built, 12 WWTPs have been reconstructed and modernized, as well as reclamation and elimination of historically contaminated lands,” said Mirzagaliyev.
He also reported on the progress in the implementation of the Roadmaps to improve the ecological situation in the context of regions. Thus, in the Atyrau region, the oil refinery has begun reclamation of the Tukhlaya Balka evaporation fields.
This year, a new complex of treatment facilities will be put into operation on the left bank of the city of Atyrau. Work is also underway to reconstruct the old WWTP, which will be completed in 2023. Cleaning of the Kvadrat evaporator pond will be completed in 2024.
In the Aktobe region, a ferroalloy plant has launched a project for the modernization and reconstruction of workshops. As a result, by the end of 2022, emissions will be reduced by 30%.
In Almaty, according to the minister, it is necessary to accelerate the implementation of the project to modernize CHPP-2 and CHPP-3. In turn, the akimat should carry out work on transferring public transport to gas and studying the wind regime, followed by making adjustments to the master plan.
In the Karaganda region, according to the signed memorandum, ArcelorMittal Temirtau undertakes to reduce air emissions by 30% by 2025. Also, 500 thousand trees will be planted around the city of Temirtau.
In the East Kazakhstan region, according to the Kazzinc LLP memorandum, a 20% reduction in atmospheric emissions is expected. The existing solid waste landfills will also be brought into conformity.
Elimination of the historical pollution of Koshkar-ata has begun in Mangistau region. Completion is scheduled for 2023. In addition, by 2024, the group of companies JSC NC KazMunayGas plans to carry out work on the elimination and disposal of 2.5 million tons of oil waste. 437 thousand tons have already been liquidated.
“Considering that the solution of environmental problems in the regions requires their implementation in the short term, we consider it necessary to take comprehensive measures to implement the Roadmaps in a timely manner. A real opportunity to improve the environmental situation in the country is the introduction of the best available technologies in industry. The transition to BAT according to the new Ecocode is planned from 2025. For this, it is planned to create an appropriate bureau, conduct a comprehensive technological audit of enterprises, develop reference books on BAT, etc." said the head of the Ministry of Ecology.
Technological audit of enterprises has already begun. In two years, 82 large companies have been audited. We started to develop 5 reference books, by the end of 2023 their number will be - 30.
At the first stage (20-35), the TOP-50 enterprises, which carry out 80% of emissions, will switch to BAT principles, which includes enterprises of the thermal power, oil and gas and chemical industries.
At the second stage, the rest of the enterprises of the 1st category (more than 2.5 thousand enterprises) will be transferred. If the company does not implement BAT, the rates of payments for emissions increase several times.
To significantly reduce the volume of generated solid waste, the Waste to Energy mechanism has been introduced at the legislative level, which provides for the incineration of waste with subsequent generation of electricity and transmission to the grid by analogy with RES.
On May 14, 2021, the acceptance of documents for inclusion in the register of auction participants began.
The total number of solid waste disposal facilities is 3.3 thousand. However, 81.2% do not comply with environmental and sanitary standards. At the same time, as of today, according to the results of space monitoring, 2,500 sites of illegal dumps have been identified.
“Another significant source of pollution is motor vehicles and it is necessary to pay special attention to this issue. One of the reasons is the deterioration of vehicles, out of 3.9 million registered vehicles with a service life of more than 10 years, 2.5 million are. or 64%,” added Mirzagaliyev.
With the adoption at the end of last year of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Technical Regulation", control over the quality of fuel at filling stations has been strengthened for compliance with environmental classes K4 and K5.
It is also extremely important to strengthen the responsibility of inspection stations and vehicle owners (MIIR). In turn, the akimats need to continue working on the renewal of vehicle fleets.
In addition, to address the issue of air pollution from transport, work is underway to develop the use of vehicles with an electric motor. For this, the ministry introduced a "zero rate" for the utilization fee in June this year.
Also, the ROP Operator, in order to create the appropriate infrastructure, has begun the implementation of a pilot project for the development of electric filling stations (EZS). More than 100 units are already operating in the cities of Nur-Sultan and Almaty electric filling stations.
This year, it is planned to install 46 new electric filling stations in cities on large intercity highways with a length of 3 thousand km.
The new Environmental Code provides for a significant strengthening and expansion of the powers of local executive bodies in environmental matters. With the entry into force of the Code, the akimats must approve targets for the quality of the environment and measures to improve it every 5 years.
In addition, the akimats have been given the competence to impose restrictions on the entry of vehicles when the air quality deteriorates. Also, in cases of unfavorable meteorological conditions, for example, when there is no wind, akimats will be able to impose temporary restrictions on the activities of polluting enterprises.
On behalf of the Head of State, on planting more than 2 billion trees in the forest fund, comprehensive plans for forest reproduction and afforestation were approved for 2021-2025. The Headquarters for the coordination of actions of forestry and environmental institutions was created.
So, as of May 25 of this year, out of the planned 129.7 million, 81.5 million trees were planted on an area of 21.6 thousand hectares.
“The issue of planting saxaul on the drained bottom of the Aral Sea is under the special control of the Head of State. From 1990 to 2021, saxaul was planted on an area of 195 thousand hectares (9%). A few weeks ago, an expedition was sent out. The revision of the existing plantings was carried out. Taking into account the natural origin, the area is 337 thousand hectares. On behalf of the Head of State, we are developing a comprehensive program for planting saxaul. In 2021-2030 it is planned to plant saxaul on an area of 1.1 million hectares,” added the minister.
According to Mirzagaliyev, for the purpose of high-quality execution of orders for large-scale landscaping, it is necessary to:
Akim of the East Kazakhstan region Danial Akhmetov noted in his speech that the measures taken within the framework of the Roadmap for a comprehensive solution of environmental problems are aimed at reducing the total volume of emissions by 7%.
According to him, over the past 7 years, the volume of emissions from all sources has decreased by 11.4 thousand tons or 8%. In Ust-Kamenogorsk — by 7 thousand tons or 11.5%.
“To reduce environmental risks and improve the environment, for environmental measures, the main large polluting enterprises allocated 46 billion tenge. Kazzinc — about 26 billion tenge, UMP — 5 billion tenge,’’ said Akhmetov.
Kazzinc LLP reduced emissions by 70% or 41.7 thousand tons. In addition, the company, together with the Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources, signed a memorandum of cooperation in the field of introducing advanced technologies to reduce the load on the environment by 20% by 2025.
The regional center has a system of environmental public monitoring. Memorandums of cooperation were signed with the enterprises UMP, Kazzinc, Sogrinskaya CHPP in the event of unfavorable weather conditions. Thus, enterprises promptly respond to the facts of exceeding the concentration of harmful substances in the air, and the population has online access to up-to-date information.
The elimination of historical foci of radioactive contamination is being carried out in stages (8 foci were eliminated, 1.1 thousand cubic meters of radioactive rocks were buried).
Together with the EBRD, for the modernization of solid waste management systems, agreements were adopted on the construction of landfills in the years Ust-Kamenogorsk and Semey (23.5 billion tenge). In addition, in these cities in October this year, a project for the separate collection and sorting of solid waste will be launched.
“Measures are being consistently implemented to increase the volume of reforestation and create green belts around settlements. Over the next 5 years, it is planned to increase the forest area by 15 thousand hectares. Over the past 2 years, 200 thousand trees have been planted. The issues of environmental safety are under constant control,” Akhmetov noted.
In Almaty last year, emissions were reduced due to the limited operating mode of the city's enterprises. Total emissions amounted to 122 thousand tons, which is 3 thousand tons less than in 2019. This was announced by the akim of the city Bakhytzhan Sagintayev.
He also noted that at present, systematic work is being carried out in Almaty to transfer public transport to environmentally friendly. The public transport system employs about 2 thousand buses, of which more than 1 thousand buses run on diesel fuel.
Akimat made a decision to ban the purchase of public transport on diesel and gasoline fuel. All existing contracts are focused on the supply of gas buses.
As Sagintayev said, a systemic issue where government support is needed is the accelerated construction of the Almaty metro. The operating 9 stations carry about 16 million passengers a year. The commissioning of two new stations currently under construction in 2021 will increase passenger traffic to 32 million passengers per year.
“The analysis shows that in the suburban area of Almaty, 200 thousand residents of the cities of Talgar and Issyk, 250 thousand residents of the villages of Uzynagash, Kaskelen and Chemolgan, who daily arrive in Almaty by private vehicles. Due to the fact that there is no infrastructure, transport communication has not been established,” Sagintayev noted.
In this regard, the task was set to develop the suburban railway infrastructure and introduce electric trains. A working group was created with representatives of JSC NC KTZh, which proposed development in three directions:
1) Western: Almaty - Kaskelen - Uzynagash, length 60 km;
2) North: Almaty - Utegen Batyr - Kapshagai, length 71 km;
3) Eastern: Almaty - Talgar, length 25 km.
Sketch diagrams have been developed for these three objects.
This year, work is underway to install 19 ecological posts at the entrances to the city. To date, 9 eco-posts have been installed, the remaining 10 posts will be installed in stages until the fall of this year.
Two months of inspection showed that 11% of urban and 12.6% of vehicles entering the city do not meet environmental standards. In the spring, measurements were taken of freight vehicles moving around the city. So, it does not meet the standards of 29%.
In this paper, it is important to note that a low penalty system is in place. For example, at the first stop, a fine of 2 MCI is issued and in the second — 5 MCI. More significant measures at the third stop are not provided at all.
Measures are systematically taken to reduce emissions from stationary sources. So, at CHPP-2, the issue of switching to gas has been resolved. For CHPP-3, competitive procedures are underway to determine the design organization and the development of a feasibility study. CHPP-1 was converted to gas back in 2017.
Individual housing construction in the city is provided for 99% of gas. To date, 3,685 houses remain unconnected to gas. The Akimat runs a program to support families in need. 92 houses were connected free of charge in 2020. Connecting houses in the suburban area remains a problematic issue.
In order to form a comfortable city for living, a study of the wind regime has begun. Based on the results of the study, detailed planning plans and other architectural and urban planning solutions will be developed. The studies provide a comprehensive assessment of the wind regime, its changes depending on the time of day or seasonality of the year. At the same time, the dispersion of air masses at sources of pollution will be studied.
“This work, using mathematical calculations and historical data, can provide an analysis of air flows throughout the city, administrative districts and specific objects. It will also give an assessment of the wind rose in the suburban area and its impact on the air quality of the city. A project has been launched to inform the townspeople about the air quality in various parts of the metropolis. Information is received from 41 sensors on 49 LED screens of the city, as well as on the Almaty TV channel. The data is updated three times a day,” the city akim informed.
Additionally, it is planned to install 60 air monitoring sensors this year. All data will be displayed in a GIS system designed for the accumulation, analysis and processing of information. Thus, a database is formed for a possible forecast of the state of environmental quality.
A web portal and a mobile application that will include an online air pollution map is being developed in collaboration with the AirVision public foundation and proactive citizens. The AQI index will be calculated according to the global methodology to compare the state of air in the global network.
The inventory shows that there are 2.6 million trees in the city, but 23% of the trees are in a weakened state. In the fall of 2019, the Zhasyl Almaty program was announced, the goal of which is not just restoration, but the development of the city's green fund. During this period, more than 480 thousand trees have been planted.
The provision of green spaces for 1 person is 7.7 sq. m, although just a year ago this figure was 4.6 sq. m. This year, 350 thousand trees have been planted, 64 thousand trees have been planted in the spring, the main plantings will be carried out in the autumn. The assortment of trees was selected together with the scientific community, landscape experts, depending on the climate and soil composition.
In general, in the period from 2019-2020. 72 public spaces have been landscaped, this year it is planned to carry out work in 23 public areas.
An inventory of the existing ditch network of the city was carried out. Field studies were carried out and all data were plotted on the city map. It has been determined that 1218 km are used for the storm system, and 168 km for irrigation. The obtained data are entered into the GIS-system, on the basis of which technical conditions are issued for the construction of facilities.
With the launch of the waste sorting complex on the territory of the city of Almaty, a full cycle of utilization of solid household waste has been ensured. The private partner plans to build an ecotechnopark by 2025, which will ensure the continuous processing of sorted secondary raw materials up to 25% and the production of industrial products on their basis.
Last year, the Committee for Sustainable Development was created under the Business Council of the city of Almaty, whose task is to study environmental issues. During the meetings of the Committee, a Comprehensive Action Plan was developed to achieve the target environmental quality indicators and improve the environmental situation in the city of Almaty until 2025. The plan is divided into short-term tasks, tasks for 2021, tasks for 2022, tasks until 2025.
Together with the EBRD, a Green City Action Plan for Almaty is being developed. Based on the situational analysis, a green city roadmap will be developed.
Grant opportunities have been identified with the World Bank for projects aimed at restoring urban forest landscapes. And conducting research on the impact of greenhouse gases on the ecology of the city. With the involvement of experts and the public, systematic work is being carried out to improve the environmental situation in the city of Almaty.
Akim of the Karaganda region Zhenis Kassymbek noted that environmental issues are relevant for the Karaganda region, especially in the cities of Temirtau, Balkhash, Zhezkazgan.
“The volume of emissions in 2020 amounted to 585 thousand tons, 80% are emissions from ArcelorMittal Temirtau and Kazakhmys Holding enterprises. To solve environmental problems, the regional akimat, together with the Ministry of Ecology, has approved a Roadmap for a comprehensive solution of environmental problems for 2020-2024,” said the akim of the Karaganda region.
In the city of Temirtau, the volume of emissions in 2020 amounted to 242 thousand tons, of which 89% falls on Arcelor Mittal Temirtau, which is 1.8 thousand tons less than in 2019.
On AMT, 22 environmental measures are provided for a total amount of 140 billion tenge.
To reduce emissions by 65 thousand tons or 30% by 2025, incl. a decrease of 1,700 tons is provided, which is 0.7%., for 2022 2.7 thousand tons, 2023 6.3 thousand tons, 2024 — 54.3 thousand tons.
At the end of 2020, the enterprise completed 8 events for the amount of 15.7 billion tenge.
Gas supply to AMT is envisaged in the amount of 1.6 billion cubic meters of natural gas, reduction of emissions by 36 thousand tons, 16.7%.
“In general, gasification of the cities of Temirtau, Balkhash, Zhezkazgan through the gradual transfer of large enterprises and the residential sector to gas fuel will give a significant leap in improving the ecology of the region. In the city of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhmys Holding last year the volume of emissions amounted to 84 thousand tons, which is 4.7 thousand tons less than the level of 2019 by 2025, it plans to reduce emissions by 20 thousand tons or 25%," Kassymbek said.
The volume of emissions by the enterprises of the city of Balkhash last year amounted to 87.2 thousand tons, which is 1.6 thousand tons more than the level of 2019. 3 measures are envisaged to reduce emissions into the environment by 2025.
At the expense of the regional budget, 30 gas analyzers were installed in 4 cities of Karaganda, Temirtau, Balkhash, Zhezkazgan to monitor the state of atmospheric air. This will allow online monitoring of the state of air pollution in these cities and making timely management decisions.
According to the akim of the Karaganda region, an important factor in improving the environmental situation is the elimination of spontaneous dumps.
According to space monitoring data, last year 1275 natural landfills were identified in the region, which were completely eliminated.
In this year work in this direction will continue, as of June 14, space monitoring revealed 340 unauthorized dumps.
One of the important areas is landscaping, this year, on the territory of the state forest fund, spring planting of forest cultures was carried out on an area of 222 hectares in the amount of 960.2 thousand seedlings of poplar, maple and elm. The rest of the planting of 501 thousand seedlings on an area of 208 hectares is planned for autumn.
At the end of his speech, Kassymbek noted that in connection with the introduction of the new Environmental Code, from Jan. 1, 2022, all payments received for emissions into the environment will be directed to environmental protection measures, in this regard, a pool of projects is being prepared to improve the ecological state of the region.
“In general, the issues of environmental protection are under constant control,” summed up Kassymbek.