Tuesday, 13 April 2021, 21:35:18
One of the most frequent calls of the President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, is to provide support to domestic scientists and to contribute to the development of science in every possible way. Grant financing has become one of the solutions to the issue of the lack of support. For 2020-2022, the total amount of grant funding for scientific research for only one competition for young scientists is 9 billion tenge.
Grants are one of the most demanded types of funding. In 2020 alone, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan held 5 competitions for grants with different amounts of funding and project implementation terms. For the first time, new types of grants were introduced — for collaboration with foreign scientists, individual, short-term.
The amount of funding for each project depends on the tasks set and the scope of research carried out within the framework of the project. The final decision on grant funding and its amount is made by the National Scientific Council (NSC) and approved by the authorized body or the sectoral authorized body that announced the competition, in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Science».
So, according to the results of the competitions of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2020, the maximum amount of the grant was:
- for the first competition of young scientists — 80 million tenge;
- with implementation period of 27 months — 70 million tenge;
- with implementation period of 36 months — 70 million tenge;
- individual grants for 12 months — up to 8 million tenge.
Mechanism for accepting, reviewing and approving scientific grants
In 2019-2020 significant work has been done to improve the legal framework and processes for administering science. The necessary changes have been made to the Regulations on National Scientific Councils, the Rules for the Organization and Conduct of State Scientific and Technical Expertise, the Rules for Financing Science, the composition of the NSC has been completely updated.
The main goals of the changes were the introduction of clear criteria for all processes, increasing the openness of the key institutions of the science management system, and the transparency of competitive procedures for society.
For the first time, on the basis of clear scientometric indicators, the compositions of 10 National Scientific Councils (NSC) were formed, which included strong Kazakhstani and foreign scientists. Two-thirds of the new members of the NSC have never previously served on councils.
The transparency of the meetings of the NSC was ensured (open voting).
All meetings of the NSC are broadcast live, links to the broadcasts are published on the official page of JSC National Center of Science and Technology Evaluation on Facebook.
Anyone can watch the work of the NSC members. Each member of the NSC fills out a score sheet. The points received by each project as a result of the state scientific and technical expertise are summed up with the points given by the members of the NSC. Based on this information, a ranked list of projects is compiled for each priority area. These measures are aimed at ensuring that the strongest projects receive government funding.
NSC meetings are recorded in audio and video formats, protocols, audio and video recordings of council votes are stored in the NCSTE. The Center also monitors the strict observance by the NSC members of the norms and restrictions provided for in the Statute on the NSC in terms of eliminating conflicts of interest. In the recent period, members of the NSC put forward an initiative to adopt the Code of Ethics for a NSC member. There is a precedent for the voluntary resignation of a member of the NSC in cases of violation of the Regulations.
Conditions for successful participation in competition for receiving state grant funding
In order for an application for a grant from the state to successfully pass the selection, it is first of all necessary that the application, the competence of the research supervisor and members of the research group, all the information provided fully correspond to the competition documentation of the state body that announced the competition.
In 2020, the main requirement for scientific leaders was the availability of a certain number of publications in journals indexed in international databases. Non-compliance with the requirements of the competition documentation for the qualifications of a scientific supervisor, as well as improper execution of the application following the results of a formal check conducted by the NCSTE, are grounds for rejection of the application already at the initial stage. In addition, the application must not contain plagiarism, incorrect borrowing, duplication with ongoing and previously implemented projects, which is also checked by the NCSTE.
Secondly, the project must receive at least 25 points (threshold score) based on the results of scientific and technical expertise, which is carried out by two foreign and one Kazakhstani experts.
Thirdly, the amount of the requested funding should not be overstated, which is checked during the financial examination. Exceeding the requested amount from the required by more than 25% is the basis for excluding the project from the number of considered.
Fourth, and most importantly, the application must be approved for funding by the NSC members.
Conditions for refusal to finance projects
It is important to note that complete similarity of projects financed from the budget is not allowed, since each application is checked by the National Center for State Scientific and Technical Expertise for the absence of plagiarism, duplication of the topic or content of the examination object (application) with previously or simultaneously submitted projects. NCSTE returns such applications without examination and publishes a list of them on its Internet resource.
In addition, according to the recommendations of the NSC, the amount of grant funding is pre-allocated by the Higher Scientific and Technical Commission for priority areas of science. In 2021-2023 the number of such priority areas was 10.
Each participant of the competition in his personal account in the information system of the NCSTE has the ability to track the status of the application.
The list of rejected projects is also posted on the websites of the NCSTE and the Science Committee. All meetings of the NSC and discussion of projects are held online and broadcast on the YouTube channel of the NCSTE. A video recording is being kept, which is stored in the NCSTE and the Science Committee. According to the Regulation on the National Scientific Council, members of the NSC must make informed decisions and explain the reasons for rejecting the project.
The current law "On Science" does not provide for the institution of appeal by the applicants or by anyone's decision of the NSC. Moreover, the decisions of the NSC are binding on the state body that announced the tender. However, in accordance with the Law "On the Procedure for Considering Applications of Individuals and Legal Entities", a bidder can send an appeal to the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which in turn applies to the NSC to provide an answer to the applicant within 15 calendar days with a justification for the decision.
Popular topics of research
The implementation of scientific research is carried out in accordance with the priority directions of the development of science, determined by the Higher Scientific and Technical Commission under the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. As the analysis shows, applied research is of the greatest interest for Kazakhstani scientists, the share of which in grants is 58.5%.
The largest number of applications is submitted for the priority “Rational use of natural resources, processing of raw materials and products”. In second place is the priority "Information and telecommunication technologies", which is associated with the high practical interest of the scientific community in the problems of digitalization of the economy. Also, a consistently high number of applications is received in the direction of "Scientific research in the field of social sciences and humanities.’’
Kazakhstani scientists actively publish their research in highly rated scientific journals
The main task of the state in the field of science is to increase the effectiveness of subjects of scientific, technical and innovative activities, funded from the budget, as well as to increase the efficiency of spent budget funds. As the analysis of projects and programs implemented in previous years shows, the most important factor affecting the quality of research, especially fundamental research, is the competence of scientific leaders and members of the research group.
In the international scientific community, the generally recognized criterion for the success of scientists and the uniqueness of research work is publication activity in top-rated journals included in international databases. It is really difficult to publish work in such journals, but Kazakhstani scientists are showing steady progress.
So, since 2011, the number of articles by our scientists has increased more than 7 times. In addition, in 2020, in comparison with 2011, Kazakhstani scientists published 12 times more articles and reviews, which are included in 1% of the most cited publications in the world (WoS, Dec. 25, 2020).
At the same time, publication activity is not the only and exclusive criterion for funding projects. Along with it, a condition for financing applied scientific research is their focus on the needs of the real sector of the country's economy, confirmed by acts of implementation, patents and other titles of protection and the availability of co-financing, etc.
Recently, there has been an enviable publication activity of domestic scientists in world scientific journals. This fact may indicate the success of the scientists themselves and the uniqueness of their research work.
Of course, this speaks of the success of Kazakhstani scientists and the uniqueness of their research work, since in recent years the number of publications in the most prestigious Q1 journals of the first quartile in the Web of Science Core Collection database has been growing.
Also an important indicator of the success of work and the development of international scientific cooperation is the number of publications with international participation (international collaborations). Over the past 10 years, there has been a steady increase in this indicator in Kazakhstan. If according to the Web of Science database in 2011 only 254 scientific works were published by Kazakhstani scientists in international journals as part of international collaborations, then by 2019 this figure increased to 2,478, i.e. almost 10 times.
In the Scopus database, the success of scientists is determined by several indicators, both quantitative (number of publications and number of citations) and qualitative (weighted citation index in the field of research (FWCI) and Hirsch index).
The qualitative indicators of research by Kazakh scientists have improved over time: in 2019, the weighted citation index was 0.91, while in 2020 it has already approached 1.0. This indicator is used in world rankings of competitiveness and on average around the world is 1.0.
The presence of articles in strong journals over the past 5 years from 2020 is a mandatory requirement for scientific supervisors of projects in the tender documentation of all competitions, and high publication activity is a competitive advantage when NSC considers applications for funding.
In addition, criteria for inclusion in the NSC, in the expert base of the NCSTE, in the expert sections for the consideration of works nominated for state awards, etc. are based on scientometric indicators.
State of the national scientific journals
About two hundred scientific journals are published in the country, the quality and level of which is very different.
Twelve Kazakh scientific journals are included in Web of Science by Clarivate Analytics, 5 — in Scopus by Elsevier.
5 Kazakh journals included in the Scopus database:
1. Eurasian Mathematical Journal (Gumilyov ENU).
2. Eurasian Journal of Mathematical and Computer Applications (Gumilyov ENU).
3. Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal (Institute of Combustion Problems).
4. News of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Series of Geology and Technical Sciences (NAS RK).
5. Eurasian Physical Technical Journal (Buketov KSU)
Twelve Kazakhstani journals included in the Web of Science database:
1. Eurasian Chemical Technology Journal (al-Farabi KazNU named after).
2. Central Asian Journal of Global Health (Nazarbayev University).
3. Bulletin of NAS RK.
4. Bulletin of NAS RK. Chemistry and Technology Series.
5. Bulletin of the NAS RK. Physics and Mathematics Series.
6. Bulletin of the NAS RK. Geology and Engineering Science Series.
7. Eurasian Mathematical Journal (Gumilyov ENU).
8. Eurasian Journal of Mathematics and Computer Applications (Gumilyov ENU).
9. Bulletin of Karaganda University: Chemistry series (Buketov KSU).
10. Bulletin of Karaganda University: Physics series (Buketov KSU).
11. Bulletin of Karaganda University: Series Mathematics (Buketov KSU).
12. International Journal of Biology and Chemistry (Al-Farabi KazNU).
At the moment, 6 journals are under consideration by the Commission for the inclusion of Kazakhstani journals in abstract databases on the Clarivate Analytics platform, on the Scopus platform — 2.
Successful projects of Kazakhstani scientists
Among the scientific achievements that can have a significant economic effect are the following.
Alloy Kazakhstani. A new material, ferrosilicoaluminum, created at the Scientific Center for the complex processing of mineral raw materials, significantly improves the properties of steel and has great prospects in non-ferrous and ferrous metallurgy and mechanical engineering.
Gravitational waves. Participants of an international project, incl. Kazakh scientist Ernazar Abdikamalov, for the first time recorded gravitational waves, the existence of which was predicted by Albert Einstein. This is a new way to see the Universe, the phenomena and processes taking place in it, to reveal the properties of matter unknown to science.
Beryllium extraction technology. Scientists KazNU named after al-Farabi found the possibility of eliminating the high-temperature process, which is accompanied by the release of toxic gases and requires large energy consumption and the use of expensive refractory equipment for metal melting. On the basis of the introduction of new technologies, it was possible to obtain more than 150 new types of products from beryllium oxide with unique electro-physicochemical properties. These products are already exported to defense enterprises of the military-industrial complex of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Israel. The leading countries of the world: the USA, China, India, etc. are showing interest in the implementation of this development at their own enterprises.
Humint. Composite fertilizer with a flexible formula, when the composition is regulated by increasing the proportion of certain macronutrients. It can bind water and give it to plants during dry periods. Thus, this development in the long term can contribute to solving the problems of water scarcity and land desertification. The authors of the invention are scientists from the Institute of Organic Synthesis and Coal Chemistry, headed by Professor Serik Fazylov.
Coronavirus vaccine. Scientists of the RSE "Research Institute of Biological Safety Problems" have developed the first domestic vaccine QazCovid-in against coronavirus, which has successfully passed the first two phases of clinical trials and has been in the third phase since Dec. 19, 2020. The vaccine is safe and forms strong immunity.
Implementation of scientific projects in the field of green energy
Within the framework of grant funding in 2018-2020. 59 projects on the green economy were implemented in the fields of energy and mechanical engineering, the development of the agro-industrial complex, the rational use of natural resources, including water resources, geology, processing, new materials and technologies, life and health sciences. Among them are:
- study of carbon stocks and carbon dioxide emission of dark chestnut soils depending on the type of land use in agrocenoses of the Urals RK;
- increasing the efficiency of water resources use in the rice irrigation systems of Kazakhstan;
- state of ecosystems of drainless lakes of arid climate and the possibility of their economic use on the example of the residual water bodies of the Aral Sea;
- evolution of snowiness in the zone of formation of the river runoff in the Balkash-Alakol basin in a changing climate as a factor of water security and sustainable development;
- fundamental and applied research in related fields of physics of terrestrial, near-Earth and atmospheric processes and their practical application;
- development of a software package for 3D modeling, continuous monitoring and forecasting of the level of air pollution in densely populated and industrial areas;
- comprehensive assessment of the impact of unused and banned pesticides on the genetic status and health of the population of the Almaty region;
- management of environmental risks in grain production on the basis of varying degrees of intensification of agriculture in order to prevent adverse effects on public health and the environment, and others.
As part of the execution of the instruction of the President of the country on the organization of 500 scientific internships and the allocation of one thousand grants for the research of young scientists, green technologies and energy efficiency have been identified as priority areas.
Participation of business in development of science
Currently, business participates in science through projects for the commercialization of the results of scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities (hereinafter - RNNTD).
In 2016, the implementation of a grant financing mechanism for RNNTD commercialization projects began as a mechanism for the transition to applied science with the involvement of business.
The operator for grant financing of RNNTD commercialization projects is the Science Fund JSC.
Based on the results of three competitions (2016, 2017, 2018), in accordance with the decisions of the National Tax Service, 156 projects for the commercialization of RNNTD are being financed, of which 144 projects are co-financed by business. The share of co-financing is a total of 16% (3.8 billion tenge).
At the moment, more than 90 of 156 high-tech industries have been launched and have reached the sales stage with a total income of more than 6.6 billion tenge.
In general, out of the implemented 156 projects belong to the following spheres:
- agro-industrial complex — 27;
- nuclear industry — 2;
- biotechnology — 25;
- IT technologies — 17;
- medicine — 13;
- metallurgy — 8;
- education — 1;
- production of machinery and equipment — 9;
- food production — 12;
- other finished products — 8;
- building materials — 5;
- tourism — 1;
- chemical industry — 12;
- ecology — 6;
- power engineering — 10 projects.
According to expert estimates, Kazakhstani business is interested in the implementation of joint scientific projects, however, due to their high-risk nature, additional incentive measures (tax incentives and preferences) are required from the state.
Business today is most willing to invest in projects in the field of IT-technologies, as they require the least financial costs and bring quick results. Also, many companies are interested in the transfer of ready-made technologies.
Selection criteria for research projects
5,014 applications were received for grant funding for 5 competitions held in 2020.
The main criteria of the state scientific and technical expertise are: innovativeness of the research plan; the quality and feasibility of the research plan, the quality of predicting the consequences / results of the implementation of scientific, scientific, technical and innovative projects / programs; the relevance and applicability of the expected results; the applicant's competence and the quality of the research environment; interdisciplinary research; the validity of the requested funding; compliance with the priority area; strengths and weaknesses of the project.
The criteria by which the National Scientific Councils are guided when making decisions are: the relevance of research to improve the level of research and methodological approaches used to solve the assigned tasks; the degree of influence of research results on the scientific and technical potential and competitiveness of scientific organizations and their teams, scientists; the degree of development of the project, that is, the availability of a reserve for the performers to carry out research in accordance with the declared parameters; the practical significance of the research results, that is, the degree of their readiness for commercialization or use in a different capacity for solving urgent problems of the country's socio-economic and scientific-technical development; no duplication of the project with previously funded research from the state budget in terms of goals and objectives, expected results and composition of performers (when conducting similar research).
Measures to support domestic science
In order to develop domestic science, scientists who have made a contribution to the development of science and technology are awarded State Prizes named after al-Farabi in the field of science and technology, as well as personal awards in the field of science and state scientific scholarships.
To provide young scientists with housing, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2020 signed an agreement with JSC Kazakhstan Mortgage Company on the sale of rental housing (68 apartments) with subsequent redemption under the Nurly Zher program.
In addition, at present, together with higher educational institutions and research institutes, proposals for postdoctoral programs are being worked out, the main goal of which is to train competitive young world-class scientists under the guidance of the most powerful Kazakhstani and foreign scientists.
Along with raising the level and potential of science, the launch of this program will allow:
- to create conditions for uniform and systematic creative development of young scientists;
- to increase the number of articles in authoritative international journals, as well as to raise the positions of Kazakhstani universities and the whole country in various ratings;
- to increase the motivation of doctoral students and undergraduates with a Ph.D degree to conduct better research in order to obtain a grant for postdoctoral studies.
The Council of Young Scientists under the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan has been created and is successfully operating, which develops proposals for improving the quality and efficiency of scientific research, as well as solving the problems of domestic science.
In the State Program for the Development of Education and Science for 2020-2025, it is envisaged to increase the contribution of science to the socio-economic development of the country through the modernization of the scientific infrastructure. Measures are being taken to increase funding for science from all non-state sources to bring spending on science to 1% of GDP in 2025. There is a renewal of the scientific equipment of state universities, research institutes that carry out research and development.
In 2020, 22 scientific organizations of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan purchased modern equipment for the first time in the amount of 2.8 billion tenge. In the 2021-2022 budget. for these purposes, about 8 billion tenge is provided. Design and estimate documentation for the overhaul of three institutes has been developed.
State Prize in Science and Technology named after Al-Farabi
In accordance with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated Jan. 21, 2015 No. 993 "On state awards of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of science and technology named after Al-Farabi, literature and art named after Abay", State awards of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of science and techniques named after al-Farabi.
State Prize named after Al-Farabi is the highest recognition of the merits of scientists and technicians to society and the state. It is awarded for scientific discoveries that have influenced socio-economic and scientific and technological development at the national and / or international level; monographs and scientific works that have opened new areas of knowledge and / or a new direction in one area of knowledge; the results of scientific and scientific-technical activities, which ensured changes in public policy; development and organization of production of new types of equipment, materials and technologies that provide an economic and (or) social effect, their implementation in various sectors of the economy on the basis of the research; development and creation of fundamentally new products, technological processes in various sectors of the economy, containing information classified as state secrets; innovative transformation of scientific knowledge into commercial products, processes or services with economic and social benefits; confirmed results of innovative activities on the introduction of technologies into production that ensured the solution of priority socio-economic problems and the growth of the competitiveness of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the domestic and foreign markets.
The works nominated for the state prize undergo state scientific and technical expertise, are considered in specially created sections in the areas of science. All these results are considered by the State Prize Awarding Commission — an advisory body under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, headed by the State Secretary of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It includes members of the Government, heads of government agencies, leading scientists, experts in various fields of knowledge, representatives of national managing holdings.
The working body of the commission is the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The decisions of the commission are taken by secret ballot by a simple majority of votes from the number of members of the Commission present at the meeting. The state prize is awarded to a work that has received at least 50% of the votes of the members of the commission present. On the basis of the recommendation of the state commission, the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan on awarding the State Prize named after Al-Farabi.
International internships for science workers
The ministry, in cooperation with the scientific community, is consistently working on the implementation of Kassym-Jomart Tokayev’s order to provide annual internships to 500 scientists in the world's leading research centers, as well as to provide 1,000 research grants within the framework of the Young Scientists project. Its operator is the Center for International Programs.
The internships are planned for up to 12 months on the basis of leading foreign higher educational institutions, research centers, scientific organizations within the framework of research companies, industry organizations. In accordance with the instruction given by the Head of State at the third meeting of the NCPT, medical and biological research, agro-industrial science, green technologies, artificial intelligence, and energy efficiency have been identified as priority areas for the development of science. These areas will be among the priorities within the framework of scientific internships.
At present, a list of more than one thousand scientists has been formed, wishing to undergo an internship; a list of leading research centers has been formed; with the sectoral ministries, the need for specialists in specific fields of science was worked out in the context of 2021-2023; the amount of funds for the practical implementation of the internship program has been determined.
The allocation of one thousand grants for research of young scientists is planned to be implemented within the framework of small individual grants for a period of up to 12 months. The corresponding budgetary requirements have also been identified and submitted to the Ministry of Finance.
International internships for fellows of programs
In 2015-2019, 116 people underwent scientific training. The fellows underwent scientific internships at such leading universities and research centers as the University of Cambridge, Oxford University, University of Birmingham, Kings College, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University, George Washington University, Duke University, Berlin Technical University, Jacobs University of Bremen, Humboldt University, Strasbourg University, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Bauman Moscow State Technical University etc.
In addition, Kazakhstani universities participate in the Erasmus project, funded by the European Union program.
New types of grants
In addition to the general grant competition, new types of grants were introduced in 2020 — small, short-term, for joint projects with foreign scientists. This is a new practice that allows the state to support as many scientists as possible, their scientific ideas and initiatives, as well as to consistently increase the competence and potential of the scientific community.
Small grants (for a period of 12 months) are aimed at solving small research problems and increasing the competence of scientists.
The Young Scientists Competition provides a chance to gain practical experience in project management.
International collaboration grants (for a period of 27 months) are aimed at solving major scientific problems in cooperation with strong foreign scientists and research teams. The implementation of projects with international collaboration should contribute to integration into the world scientific space and the dynamic development of Kazakhstani science.
Kazakhstani scientists have everything they need to create medicines.
The scientific organizations of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan have accumulated sufficient experience, have a modern scientific base and highly qualified personnel, which allow solving problems related to the development of manufacturing technologies, testing and supplying the country with domestic drugs that are not inferior to foreign counterparts in their efficiency.
In January 2020, scientists at the National Center for Biotechnology developed a highly sensitive test system within six days, which made it possible to quickly detect cases of the COVID-19 virus.
The RSE Scientific Research Institute of Biological Safety Problems of the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan has developed 67 types of domestic vaccines against dangerous and highly dangerous infections during its more than half-century history of activity.
In the spring of 2020, scientists from the research institute developed an inactivated vaccine QazCovid-in in the shortest possible time, which is currently undergoing phase 3 clinical trials. Also, scientists of this institute have developed a subunit vaccine, which is also entering the stage of clinical trials. In addition, three more types of coronavirus vaccines are under active development.
As the research results show, the inactivated vaccine QazCovid-in is safe and forms strong immunity.
Also, on the basis of research institute, a modern biopharmaceutical plant for the production of biological products and vaccines according to GMP standards is being built. The planned production capacity is 60 million doses per year.
Research centers in the regions of Kazakhstan
According to the Statistics Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan, in 2019 the number of scientific organizations in the country was 386, of which:
- public sector — 100;
- sector of higher professional education — 92;
- business sector — 158;
- non-profit sector — 36.
Half of scientific organizations are located in the regions, incl. in Akmola region — 13, Aktobe region — 15, Karaganda region — 30, East Kazakhstan region — 31 and Kostanay region — 12.
In 2019, internal expenditures on R&D amounted to 82,333.1 million tenge. The share of regions from these funds: Akmola region — 1.608 billion tenge, Aktobe region — 1.60 billion tenge, Karaganda region — 4.543 billion tenge, East Kazakhstan region — 7.82 billion tenge and Kostanay region — 687 million tenge.
The list of projects implemented by scientific organizations in the regions within the framework of grant and program targeted financing:
1. Scientific and technological substantiation of expanding the raw material base of the ferroalloy industry by involving weakly coking power-generating coals and man-made waste in technological processes in order to obtain new materials for multipurpose purposes (Abishev Chemistry and Metallurgical Institute, Karaganda region)
2. Research and development of innovative technologies for obtaining wear-resistant materials for mechanical engineering products (East Kazakhstan State University named after Amanzholov, East Kazakhstan region, Ust-Kamenogorsk).
3. Comprehensive study of non-anticlinal oil and gas traps in the Republic of Kazakhstan (Atyrau University of Oil and Gas, Atyrau region).
4. Science-intensive high-tech sector in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union: monitoring of development and prospects for interaction (Rational Solution LLP, Karaganda region).
5. Development of a mobile hatchery and biotechnology for the reproduction of indigenous commercial fish species (West Kazakhstan Agrarian and Technical University named after Zhangir Khan, West Kazakhstan region, Uralsk).